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Sound itself fits within the larger heading of wave motion, which is in turn closely related to vibration, or harmonic (back-and-forth) motion. Both wave motion and vibration involve the regular repetition of a certain form of movement; and in both, potential energy (think of the energy in a sled at the top of a hill) is continually converted to kinetic energy (like the energy of a sled as it is sliding down the hill) and back again.

Wave motion carries energy from one place to another without actually moving any matter. Waves themselves may consist of matter, as for instance in the case of a wave on a plucked string or benzyl alcohol uv waves on the ocean. This type of wave is called a mechanical wave, but again, the benzyl alcohol uv itself does not undergo any benzyl alcohol uv displacement over horizontal space: contrary to what our eyes tell us, molecules of water in an ocean wave move up and down, but they do not actually travel with the wave itself.

Only the energy is moved. Then there are waves of pulses, such as light, sound, radio, or electromagnetic waves. Benzyl alcohol uv travels by means of periodic waves, a period being the amount of time it takes a complete wave, from trough to crest and back again, to pass through a given point.

These periodic waves are typified by a sinusoidal pattern. To picture a sinusoidal wave, one need only imagine an x-axis crossed at regular benzyl alcohol uv by a curve that rises above the line to point y before moving downward, below the axis, to point y. This may be expressed also as a graph of sin x versus x. In any case, the wave varies by equal distances upward and downward as it benzyl alcohol uv along the x-axis in a regular, unvarying pattern.

Periodic waves have three notable interrelated characteristics. One of these is speed, typically calculated in seconds. Another is wavelength, or the distance between a crest and the adjacent crest, or a trough and the adjacent trough, along a plane parallel to that of the benzyl alcohol uv itself.

Finally, there is frequency, the number of waves passing through a given benzyl alcohol uv during the interval benzyl alcohol uv one second. Frequency is measured in terms of cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz), named in honor of the nineteenth-century German physicist Heinrich Hertz. If a wave has a frequency of 100 Hz, this means that 100 waves are passing through a given point during the interval of one second. Higher frequencies are expressed in terms of kilohertz (kHz; 103 or 1,000 cycles per second) or benzyl alcohol uv (MHz; 106 or 1 million benzyl alcohol uv per second.

Over the interval of one second, a given number of waves pass a certain point (frequency), and each wave occupies a certain distance (wavelength). Multiplied by one another, these two properties equal the velocity of the wave. An additional characteristic of waves (though one that is not related mathematically to the three named above) is amplitude, or maximum displacement, which can be described as the distance from the x-axis to either the crest or the trough. Amplitude is related to the intensity or the amount of energy in the wave.

These four qualities are easiest to imagine on a transverse wave, described earlier with reference to the x-axis-a wave, in other words, in which vibration or harmonic motion occurs perpendicular to the direction in which the wave is moving.

Such benzyl alcohol uv wave is much easier to picture, for the purposes of illustrating concepts such as frequency, than a longitudinal wave; but in fact, sound waves are longitudinal. A longitudinal benzyl alcohol uv is one in which the individual segments vibrate in the same direction as the wave itself.

The shock waves of an explosion, flagyl 500mg the concentric waves of a radio transmission as it goes out from the station to all points within receiving distance, are examples of longitudinal waves. In this type of wave pattern, the crests and troughs are not side by side in a line; they radiate outward.

Wavelength is the distance between each concentric circle or semicircle (that is, wave), and amplitude the "width" of each wave, which one may imagine by likening it to the relative width of colors on a rainbow. Having identified its shape, it is reasonable to ask what, exactly, a sound wave is.

Simply put, sound waves are changes in pressure, or an alternation between condensation and rarefaction. Imagine a set of benzyl alcohol uv waves-represented benzyl alcohol uv concentric circles-radiating from a sound cheated. The waves themselves are relatively higher in benzyl alcohol uv, or denser, than the "spaces" between them, though this is just an illustration for the purposes of clarity: in fact the "spaces" are waves of lower pressure that alternate with higher-pressure waves.

Vibration is integral to the generation of sound. When the diaphragm of a loudspeaker pushes outward, it forces nearby air molecules closer together, creating a high-pressure region all around the loudspeaker.

The diaphragm is pushed backward in response, thus freeing up a volume of space for the air molecules. These then rush bayer online the benzyl alcohol uv, creating a low-pressure region behind the high-pressure one. As a result, the loudspeaker sends out alternating waves of high pressure (condensation) and low pressure (rarefaction).

Furthermore, as sound waves pass through a medium-air, for the benzyl alcohol uv of this discussion-they create fluctuations between density and rarefaction.

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