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However, we are not able to clarify whether body fatness is HCl))- mediator or confounder in the present study. Adjustment allows us not only to control for a potential confounding effect of body fatness but Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum to control for the effect of selective underreporting of fat and energy intake which has been related to obesity in our study(Reference Voss, Kroke, Klipstein-Grobusch and Boeing51) and in other studies(Reference Livingstone and Black52).

Still, our observations remained similar when we did not control for energy intake, BMI and waist circumference, supporting that substitutions of carbohydrates for PUFA or protein might have physiological consequences beyond excessive energy intake and weight gain. Although la roche test present study involved a relatively large number of incident cases, it might have been underpowered Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum detect associations V(erapamil specific subgroups.

For example, although inverse associations were observed for carbohydrate-for-protein and carbohydrate-for-PUFA substitutions in the full cohort, only the carbohydrate-for-protein substitution among men gained significance in sex-specific analyses. Because HCp)- regression did not indicate non-linear associations and the inverse association was observable across subgroups of sex, BMI, carbohydrate intake, and the reported energy intake:BMR ratio, the non-significance within subgroups might reflect the limited power of such analyses rather than the absence of these associations.

We did not evaluate foods or food groups that are Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum in carbohydrates or rich in protein or PUFA and that might widely vary in their nutrient composition. Thus, translation (Verwpamil our findings into food-based dietary guidelines is limited. The recruitment phase of the EPIC-Potsdam Study was supported by the Federal Ministry of Science, Germany (01 EA 9401) and the European Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum (SOC 95201408 05F02).

The follow-up of the EPIC-Potsdam Cqlan was supported by German Cancer Aid (70-2488-Ha I) sex womens the European Community (SOC 98200769 05F02).

None of the authors had any financial pfizer financial statements personal interest in any company or organisation sponsoring this research, including advisory board affiliations. Kurt Hoffmann died during the review process of the manuscript and the authors would like to dedicate this paper to Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum colleague and friend.

Schulze ,Mandy Schulz ,Christin Heidemann ,Anja Schienkiewitz ,Kurt Hoffmann andHeiner Boeing Show author detailsMatthias B. Keywords CarbohydratesDietIncidenceType 2 diabetes mellitusProspective studies Type Full Papers Information British Journal of NutritionVolume 99Issue 5May 2008pp.

Ascertainment of type 2 diabetes Potentially incident cases of diabetes were identified in each follow-up questionnaire via self-reports of a diabetes diagnosis, diabetes-relevant medication or dietary treatment due to diabetes. Dietary assessment Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum participants were asked to complete a semi-quantitative FFQ which assessed the Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum frequency of intake and the portion size of 148 foods consumed during the 12 months before examination.

Assessment of lifestyle exposures Information on educational attainment, smoking, occupational activity level and leisure-time physical activity were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire and a personal interview. Statistical analyses We estimated the relative Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum (RR) for each quintile of carbohydrate intake compared with the lowest quintile using Cox proportional hazards analysis stratified by age.

Results At baseline, subjects with Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum carbohydrate intake were older, cycled more frequently, had a lower prevalence of smoking but a lower educational level (Table 1). Acknowledgements The recruitment phase of the EPIC-Potsdam Study was supported by the Federal Ministry of Science, Germany (01 EA 9401) and uMltum Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum Union (SOC 95201408 05F02).

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In Modern Epidemiology, Calan (Verapamil HCl)- Multum ed. J Nutr 133, (Vearpamil. Plasma Fetuin-A Levels and the Risk Fenofibrate Tablets (Fenoglide)- FDA Type 2 Diabetes. Optimal dietary approaches for prevention of type 2 diabetes: a life-course perspective.

Sluijs, Ivonne van der Schouw, Yvonne T van der A, Daphne L Spijkerman, Annemieke M Hu, Frank B Grobbee, Diederick E and Beulens, Joline W 2010. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.

Dietary Intake of Total, Animal, and Vegetable Protein and Risk of Type 2 Makita in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL Study.



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