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However, the observed sex difference may also be due partly to play of chance because of the lower case numbers in the relatively small number of male regular cooks in CKB. Nonspecific eye symptoms (e. Although nonspecific, these symptoms are closely linked to DSCIC and conjunctiva disorders, most commonly conjunctivitis-one of the most prevalent eye diseases worldwide.

Despite being usually self-limiting, the high occurrence and recurrent nature of conjunctivitis and virology journal impact factor associated loss of productivity predispose to profound public health and economic burden (e. Regretfully, little reliable estimates exist on the disease burden attributed to conjunctiva disorders in LMICs, Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum the impact is likely to be disproportionately larger than in high-income countries.

Nonetheless, should our observation snot verified in future epidemiological investigations, the global health impact of household air pollution from solid fuel use would be significantly higher.

No previous studies have examined the risks of DSCIC associated with solid fuel use. DSCIC is a group of relatively severe diseases of anterior and superficial structures of the eyes (other than the lens and Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum that are potentially susceptible to the harm Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum solid fuel smoke.

The present study explored the association and Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum novel epidemiological evidence supporting a link between solid fuel use and DSCIC. Of the 1,583 cases recorded in the present study, most were either keratitis (72. Given the association of solid fuel use with conjunctiva disorders, it may act through common pro-inflammation Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum or via increasing the risk of conjunctiva disorders through keratitis or iridocyclitis.

Despite the relatively large sample size, our study lacked the power to investigate the associations of solid fuel use with each of the specific DSCIC, which have heterogeneous pathophysiology and may not necessarily be subject to the same impact from household air pollution.

In the absence of previous studies on household air pollution and DSCIC, our study has generated a new hypothesis that warrants further investigation on the association of solid fuel use with each of the specific DSCIC. Interestingly, we found no evidence of an elevated Penicillin G Benzathine and Penicillin G Procaine Inj (Bicillin CR)- Multum of glaucoma in solid fuel users, despite the fact that solid fuel use is associated with 10- to 100-fold higher exposure to PM2.

Notably, the aetiology of glaucoma remains poorly understood, and most established risk factors are nonmodifiable (e. While it is plausible that Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum pollutants Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum reach the aqueous humour through the cardiorespiratory system and increase IOP by blocking the circulation, the previously reported null association between ambient PM2.

The null association observed for glaucoma (which is strongly linked to other eye diseases, particularly DSCIC, in our study) in the present Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum also suggests that the associations of solid fuel use with other outcomes are unlikely Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum be driven by the mutual correlation between different eye diseases.

The primary pollutant in solid fuel smoke is PM2. Future investigation into the chemical composition of tear or aqueous humour samples from solid fuel users may offer important insight into the potential pathogenesis pathways.

We found suggestive evidence that switching from solid to clean fuels is associated with lower risks of conjunctiva disorders, cataracts, and DSCIC compared to long-term solid fuel users, with indication of lower risks associated with Halobetasol Propionate Ointment (Halonate)- FDA switching.

However, we observed no evidence of benefit from better cookstove ventilation. The heterogeneous nature and unknown effectiveness of cookstove ventilation in the study population may have introduced further noise to the analysis, masking any true association.

The strengths of this study are the large and diverse population, enhanced Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution)- Multum assessment (incorporating fuel types and cooking behaviour), and systematic investigation of several understudied eye diseases. There are also several key limitations in our study. First, despite the enhancement in exposure assessment (combining personal cooking frequency and primary fuel type), it was not feasible to collect objectively measured household air pollution exposure data in the entire cohort, and we had no information on household fuel use among never-regular cooks.

It is possible that historical or concurrent exposure to household air pollution from secondary or neighbourhood fuels have elevated the background risk of eye disease in primary clean fuel users, and this could have diluted the associations examined.

Second, the lack of baseline eye examination prevented us from excluding individuals with preexisting conditions, so some events may simply be delayed diagnosis or treatment of such conditions.

Serious eye conditions such as cataracts, aphakia, some forms of DSCIC, and glaucoma may stop people from cooking (thus reducing exposure) or prompt switching from solid to clean fuels. This may reflect a higher proportion of older individuals in the longer exposure group (mean age 60 years versus 51 years), who may already have had a cataract operation prior to baseline and were no longer at risk of cataracts. This may have underestimated the real association between household air pollution and cataracts and glaucoma, and to a lesser extent, other relatively acute conditions.



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