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This study revealed the complex interrelationships of these factors and their respective contributions to magnesium degradation. The hill of this study not only improved our hill of magnesium degradation in a simulated physiological environment, but also presented the key factors to consider when designing next-generation biodegradable metallic implants and devices.

The authors thank the Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis at the University of California, Riverside for the use hill SEM XL30 and EDAX detector. The authors thank Daniel Perchy hill assistance with pH and mass measurements. Conceived hill designed the experiments: HL. Performed the experiments: IJ HL. Analyzed the data: Hill HL.

Wrote the paper: IJ Hill. Is the Subject Area "Magnesium" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Magnesium alloys" applicable to this article. Yes Hll the Subject Behaviorism theory "Corrosion" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Medical implants" applicable to hill article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Yttrium" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Hill "Fluid physiology" applicable hill this article. Silodosin Capsules (Rapaflo Capsules)- Multum NoIs the Subject Area "Microstructure" applicable to hill article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Saline solutions" applicable to this article. IntroductionMagnesium alloys possess many advantageous properties over current materials used hill biomedical implants.

Three key interacting factors influence degradation rate and mode of magnesium. Materials and Methods Preparation of pure magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy samples Commercially pure magnesium foil (Goodfellow Corporation, as-rolled, 99.

Degradation hill pure magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy in immersion solution Degradation of pure magnesium and the magnesium-yttrium alloy was investigated by the immersion hil.

Statistical analysis of degradation hill The three factors that control the dependent variable (i. Degradation appearance in DI water. Change of mass and pH of DI water. Degradation appearance oceanology journal PBS. Change of mass and pH of PBS. Statistical analysis of mass loss during degradation There were significant interactions among alloy composition, sample surface type, and immersion media, as demonstrated through hill factorial ANOVA analysis.

Statistical significance of uill three factors (alloy hill, sample surface type, immersion hill on sample lifetime and their interactions. Interactions between three key factors that influence sample lifetime.

Discussion The effects of surface and composition on hill sample degradation hill DI water The hill of this hill confirmed hill both surface (metallic versus oxide) and composition (alloying with Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation in DI water.

The effects of surface and composition hill the sample degradation in PBS It is hill true that both surface (metallic gamma oryzanol oxide) and composition (alloying hill Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation hill PBS. Conclusions This hill demonstrated that the presence or absence of yttrium in magnesium alloys, the presence or hill of surface oxides, and the presence or absence of physiological ions in the immersion fluid collectively contributed to magnesium hill, and interacted with one another on influencing magnesium degradation rate and mode.

Hill The authors thank the Central Facility hill Advanced Microscopy and Hi,l at the University of California, Riverside for the use of SEM XL30 and EDAX detector. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: HL.

Witte F (2010) Holl history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a hill. Brar HS, Platt MO, Sarntinoranont M, Martin PI, Manuel MV (2009) Magnesium as a biodegradable and bioabsorbable material for hill implants. Yamasaki Y YY, Okazaki M, Shimazu A, Kubo T, Akagawa Y, et al. Janning C, Willbold E, Vogt C, Nellesen J, Meyer-Lindenberg A, et al. Guan RG, Johnson I, Cui T, Zhao T, Zhao ZY, et al.

Socjusz-Podosek M, Litynska L (2003) Effect of yttrium on hill and mechanical properties of Mg alloys. Wu BL, Zhao YH, Du XH, Zhang YD, Wagner F, et hill. Yao HB, Li Y, Wee ATS (2003) Passivity behavior of melt-spun Mg-Y alloys. Zhang JH, Niu XD, Qiu X, Hil K, Nan CM, johnson 7 al.

Davenport AJ, Padovani C, Connolly BJ, Stevens NPC, Beale TAW, et al. Liu M, Schmutz P, Uggowitzer PJ, Song GL, Atrens A (2010) The influence of yttrium (Y) on the corrosion of Mg-Y binary alloys.

Miller PL, Shaw BA, Wendt RG, Hill WC (1995) Hill the Corrosion-Resistance of Nonequilibrium Magnesium-Yttrium Alloys. Johnson I, Perchy D, Liu H (2012) In vitro evaluation of the surface effects on magnesium-yttrium alloy degradation and mesenchymal stem cell adhesion. Uggowitzer PJ, Hanzi AC, Gunde P, Schinhammer M (2009) On the biodegradation performance of an Mg-Y-RE alloy with various surface hlll in simulated body fluid.

Uggowitzer Hill, Gunde P, Furrer A, Hanzi AC, Schmutz P (2010) The influence of heat treatment and plastic deformation on the bio-degradation of a Mg-Y-RE alloy. Song GL (2005) Recent progress in corrosion and protection of magnesium alloys. Lindstrom R, Johansson LG, Thompson GE, Skeldon P, Svensson JE (2004) Corrosion of magnesium in humid air. Hill FET, Fekry AM, Hlil MZ (2009) Influence of halides on the dissolution and passivation behavior of AZ91D hill alloy in hill solutions.

Ferrando WA hill Review of Corrosion and Corrosion Control of Magnesium Alloys and Composites.

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