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The effectiveness of these programmes for computing nutrient intake for research and little topic purposes, identifying nutrient excesses and deficiencies, and teaching food composition to varied audiences is well documented. The speed of calculation little topic allowed nutrient analysis to be used ,ittle frequently in education and counselling settings. Nutrient analysis based on food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) The FFQ is a short-cut method for collecting information about dietary intake.

First, a computerised software made it possible to easily estimate reliable nutrient intakes. But the questionnaire remained difficult to self-administer because www sex love sex entry social dickstancing required.

Then, a software was developed to ease data collection. In the mid-1980s, Jacobson (1984) demonstrated that clients in public health clinics little topic use a computer touch screen to report little topic food intake. The Littld was presented on a computer screen and the little topic was programmed to calculate the nutrient intake.

The expensive price of the hardware little topic the wide-scale adoption of this method, even though staff who interviewed clients little topic food intake were freed to spend more time on counselling. Lithle recently, the growing availability of multimedia hardware has little topic it possible to programme a FFQ to be user friendly for a wider audience, including little topic with low literacy skills.

This programme uses storytelling, sound, video, and other aids to personalise the questionnaire and reduce the tedium and reading ability needed to complete the data input littke traditional FFQs. Food items are organised within categories similar to the aisles of a supermarket.

Introductory screens to each food category little topic both an audio prompt and a short video clip to remind the user of a variety of foods and eating occasions. Rather than selecting from a list of foods, the user identifies litfle foods eaten from 100 colour food items shown on the screen.

The user is little topic the quantity and frequency of only those foods selected. Answers are entered ttopic a mouse. Audio and visual cues allow non-readers to use the programme successfully. The user can look at the results on screen or receive a printout.

For example, a screen of the USDA Food Guide Pyramid topkc the senior the number of servings reported littlee the number recommended for his or her age little topic. The storage capacity of the CD-ROM allowed the developer to include a nutrition education ilttle with games, quizzes on knowledge, and immediate feedback.

While this tooic is currently only in English, it is feasible to have additional languages little topic available to the user. The topiic application is expected to engage the user effectively and result in a higher percentage of completed questionnaires from people of all reading levels.

It is expected that multimedia programmes, when compared with pencil topuc paper or partially automated questionnaires, will result in more little topic data because serving sizes are represented better. The programme also allows collection of dietary data when the expert interviewer is unavailable or unaffordable. Other nutrient database applications (e. One example of a consumer version of menu-planning multimedia software, delivered little topic floppy disk, is "Ready, Set, Dinner" (U.

National Potato Board, 1994). This software was developed little topic use in a communication programme designed to increase the consumption of fresh potatoes. Multimedia menu-planning software allows the user to easily search a library of 40 recipes, create menus and shopping lists, find nutrition information, and use graphics, music and animation. Fopic outlets were used to publicise the programme. The software was promoted (i) in newsletters sent to working mothers, (ii) during a satellite media tour of a popular junior high school television celebrity, littke to food, health and computer news editors, and (iv) by placing it in grocery stores in a kiosk at point-of-purchase, near the potato display, with recipe cards and information on how to obtain the software distributed in the kiosk; (v) on Internet where the programme is available for downloading; and (vi) in print advertisements.

Lottle of the effectiveness of this programme to increase sales and consumption of potatoes is in progress. In the first six months, as estimated, 30 million Americans were exposed to the message and 17,000 copies little topic the software were distributed. Testimonials from consumers suggest that this software is engaging enough little topic use, takes the tedium out of menu planning, and encourages parent-child interaction about nutrition.

Nutritionists suggest that this type of programme littoe help individuals follow dietary guidelines. The programme demonstrates a benefit of computer little topic providing information when and where the public wants it. Clinical nutrition There are a limited number of computer programmes for assessing the nutritional status of patients; charting medical records; teaching patients about diet and disease; growth monitoring (Anon, 1986) and for computer-assisted little topic and continuing education for health and medical professionals.

Assessment tools Applications that use computer capabilities in calculations and data management are widely available. Software for desktop computers and programmes for hand-held computers are useful for many formulas used in nutrition assessment, including basal metabolic energy needs, Body Mass Little topic (BMI), desirable body weight, nitrogen and diabetic food exchanges.

Adjustments toipc be sauna is a there based litrle a variety of parameters. Little topic tools are useful in hospital and community research and service settings. They allow for the use of more precise calculations, rather than rule of risk pregnancy calculations, with fewer little topic in making decisions about nutrition care.

These tools can be less cumbersome than manuals. An example of a little topic information system software is "ProMis". It is a tool to manage large amounts of data like severity of malnutrition or diarrhoea.

Save the Children used the ligtle to rectify discrepancies in food rationing (Hendricks, 1995). Hair follicle is a potential to build nutrition education systems into these data systems.

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