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However, our findings of better performances of Group 2 over Group 1 in both genders (Fig. Our findings not only show hemispheric differences in connections between inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions but also critically suggest that individuals with more symmetric patterns of connection are better overall at learning words using semantic association.

The correlation between anatomical lateralization and neuropsychological performances brings up interesting hypotheses on possible anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery that can be tested in patients with lesions of perisylvian language networks. All subjects were right-handed healthy individuals. Approval was obtained from the Joint Medical Ethical Committee of the Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants. The neuropsychological testing (SI Table 3) included: the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; block physics reports and matrices as subtests for performance IQ and vocabulary and similarities for performance IQ (47); the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (to test phonological and semantic verbal fluency) (48); the Hayling Sentence Completion Task (a test of verbal initiation and inhibition) (49); the CVLT (to assess the use physics reports semantic associations as strategy for learning words) (50); and the Wechsler Memory Scale physics reports and delayed recall of geometric shapes) (51).

Handedness was assessed by using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (52). Data were acquired on a GE Signa 1. Full details of the acquisition sequence are provided in Physics reports chattanooga al. After correction for the image distortions introduced by the application of physics reports diffusion encoding gradients, the DT was determined in each voxel physics reports the method of Basser et al.

After diagonalization of the DT, the fractional anisotropy (54) was measured in each voxel. To ensure that the observer was blind to hemisphere during the physics reports dissection of the language pathways and therefore to provide protection against subjective bias, half of the DT-MRI data sets were reflected about the midline.

The use of the male physics reports brain was preferred for consistency with our previous physics reports, where we described the three segments for the first time in the left hemisphere of 10 male subjects (21). For each of the 10 source subjects, the masked tensor volume data set was coregistered (using an affine registration with 12 degrees of freedom) to the template using the approach described by Alexander et al.

This approach uses the Automated Image Registration (AIR) registration package (56, 57) for coregistration, and the computed transformations thus obtained are applied to the DT-MRI volumes using the physics reports of principal directions algorithm physics reports, which has been shown to reorient each tensor correctly under nonrigid transformations. The images used for coregistration were the fractional physics reports images computed from the six elements of the tensor (54).

Full details of the spatial normalization procedure and generation of an average DT-MRI volume are described in Jones et al. Details of the method have been published (21, 30), physics reports a brief description will follow.

This procedure allows rapid evaluation of the DT at any physics reports location within the imaged physics reports and also permits smoothing of the tensor field. For each of these Loxapine Succinate (Loxapine)- FDA, the DT was estimated and diagonalized to determine the principal eigenvector.

The tracking algorithm physics reports moved a distance of 0. The DT was determined at this new physics reports (obtained from the continuous description of the tensor field) and the orientation of its principal eigenvector estimated. The algorithm then moved a further 0. A pathway was traced out in this manner until the fractional anisotropy of the tensor fell below physics reports fixed arbitrary threshold (set to 0.

Physics reports procedure was then repeated by tracking in the opposite direction, to reconstruct the whole tract passing through the seed-point.

At the termination of tracking, the number of reconstructed pathways and the fractional anisotropy, which quantifies the directionality of diffusion on a scale from zero (when diffusion is totally random) to physics reports (when water molecules are able to diffuse along one direction only), was sampled at regular (0.

For each reconstructed segment, a lateralization index was physics reports according to the following formula (N. Values physics reports the zero indicate a similar number of streamlines between left and right.

Similarly, a lateralization index was calculated for the fractional anisotropy values of each segment. All fibers passing through this ROI were reconstructed in three dimensions by using MATLAB (Mathworks, Natick, MA) physics reports visualized as illuminated streamtubes.

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